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Wafer biscuit production process - Video

Wafer biscuit manufacturing have following steps 


Batter   and Cream

Baking  -  Sheets are baked

Cooling  - Sheets are cooled


Cooling  -sheets with cream in block cooler

Cutting  - Wafer  sheets  are cut into  fingers


Refrigeration and freezing equipments used in Bakery production

Bakery industry  which includes  bread , cakes ,wafer and biscuits  as major product . Manufacturing process  of these items  requires  refrigeration and freezing equipments  for production process.

Chilling Plant

Chilling plants are required for  providing cold water which are circulated in jacketed mixers to maintain  dough temperature s during mixing . Chilling plants are normally are following  types

Opentype circuit ( Storage  tanks for water  are part of the chilled water system )
Closed circuit ( No tank )

Air cooled
Water Cooled

Scroll compressors
Open type belt driven compressors

Chilling plant consists of compressor , condenser , evaporators and delivery and return pipeline , Temperatures are set by  thermostats. Chilled water temperatures are maintained 5-8degc

Walk in cold storage

As the names signifies on can walk in these cold room these are new version of old method of cold storage s and have  advantage of easy dismantling and erection  .Walk in cold rooms  are suitable for storing  ingredients like butter, chocolates  ,chemicals , Additives  etc . Capacities of refrigeration are calculated on basis of types of products and area .Walk in cold rooms panels are made of Puff Panels .. Temperatures are maintained 6-4 degc

Cooling Tunnels

Cooling tunnels are provided to cool cakes , swiss rolls after baking and  after cooling products can easily be packed without any damage . These tunnels can be  on line  directly mounted on the conveyors as in cream biscuits  production  or can be standalone tunnels located at a distance from production line .

Deep Freezer

Deep freezers are kept near  production line and are used to store small quantities of ingredients and raw material .for eg chocochjps , fruit cuts , additives , butter etc . It is some what similar to refrigerators

Milk chillers

Milk chillers are required to store milk in solution phase  for process requirement  where milk is required to sprayed . Milk solution are prepared and are transferred to milk chillers for storage . Direct ( Dx) expansion type milk chiller are more popular then open type . Cooling takes through plates around the jacketed storage tank . Temperatures are maintained between 6-4degc

Block cooler

Block coolers are required in wafer biscuit  production where pile of sandwich sheets filled with creams are cooled before  sheet cutting operation s. Temperatures are maintained below 15deg c .

Plant layout for an automated bread plant

Schematic diagram of  bread plant layout

 automated bread plant layout , bread plant layout , bread factory layout

Wire cut cookies Depositor - A video

Cookies production are done  mainly by two process one with plain depositor where as second popular method is  depositor with wire cut arrangement.

Watch this video

Indian market ready for new bakery products

Indian middle class is lapping   bakery products like never before let it be traditional products like Cakes Breads ,Buns , Biscuits , Cookies,Rusk  and Wafers . Now few bakery products have been  in  high demand  such  as Crackers , Pasta ,Pizza s and Burgers .Foreign Bakery chains are opening base in all major metros of  India  with new products.
Indian markets is now ready for few products which has been popular in western world such as

indian  bakery industry

Cupcakes and Muffins
Cupcakes are rage in USA .Be it any celebrations or party times people are buying cupcakes in bulk . Cupcakes and Muffins  are now being manufactured  by Monginis  on national scale .  Few local players such as Harvest gold  are  producing Muffins /cupcakes .

Donuts ,Waffles and Bagels are popular in countries like USA ,UK and Western Europe .Now Indian bakers have started  producing  them in select bakery chains

Organic Breads/Gluten free bread
Health  conscious people  in western countries have graduated to more healthier version of baked goods such as gluten free bread and organic breads made from organic ingredients free from any chemicals

Swiss rolls/Cream Rolls
Other popular variety which are popular in western world  are  Swiss rolls  and cream rolls  .Britannia did tried to launch this product way back in year 1996 but discontinued .

Whole grain Digestive Biscuits
Whole grain digestive biscuits are made by  all major biscuit manufacturers in India .As people are  turning to healthier biscuits

Cream Pie s
Pies  which are  mostly imported  from Malaysia,South Korea and Phillipines  are liked by Indian consumers and  Chocolate pies can be seen on all major supermarkets .

Universal Robina Corporation ( URC ) - Major Bakery Manufacturer in Phillipines - A profile

universal  robina  corparationuniversal robina corporation , urc , universal robina corporation brands
URC  ( Universal Robina Corporation )  is one of the major  manufacturer of bakery products in asean countries .Established  in year  1954 by John Gokongwei  . It has come a long way to be Asean foremost bakery brands . Universal Robina Corporation  is subsidiary of JG Summit  Holdings, Inc .
Universal Robina Corporation (URC) is a manufacturer and marketer of branded food and beverages in Philippines. The company manufactures several product category related snack foods, beverage, grocery and other related products. It also offers coffee, flour, feed, meat and ready-to-drink products. The company operates in Philippines and also operates in China, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Hong Kong and Indonesia internationally. In Philippines, the company sell its products under the brands such as Chippy, Nova, Hunt’s tomato-based products and other snack foods under the Jack ‘n Jill mega brand, Nissin and Payless noodles. URC has 15 manufacturing facilities and 14 distribution centers throughout Philippines.

Major Products - Coffee , Flour , Ready to eat  ,Snack foods , biscuit s

Major Brands - Nips , Wiggles ,Cloud 9 ,Cream-O, Fun-O, Magic, Dewberry

No. employees - 8783

Turnover-1,029 (US$m)


Cadbury Schweppes plc,Dairy Farm International Holdings Ltd ,Del Monte Foods Company ,Groupe Danone,Kraft Foods, Inc. ,Mars, Inc.,Nestle S.A.,San Miguel Corporation

CEO- James Go

Universal Robina Corporation

110 E. Rodriguez Avenue
Quezon City,1110
Fax: 63-2-6345317

Baking technology used in 1946 is still followed in some places

While  browsing videos on  subject - bakery industry . I found this video of  baking technology in 1946 interestingly production technology shown   are  even  followed  now  in some places with minor modifications

Automated Pizza production process - Video

Automated  production process  of pizza  have following steps









New Indian wafer brands giving tough fight to imported brands

While one sshop for daily grocery in these uptown  food retail super market one cannot ignore the presence  of  two Indian wafer brands with bright and colorfull packaging .

Interestingly  the Indian wafer markets has been dominated by  UAE based brands such as

"Tiffany "  wafers  manufactured  by IFFCO

"Nutro " wafer now  brand of Britannia Industries ltd

Both  are  imported from  UAE 

But presence of  Pickwick wafer packs and Dukes Waffy packs   are giving tough competition to these two imported brands

Pick wick wafers

Dukes Waffy

Innovative Packaging in Indian Biscuit and Cookies market

Apart from conventional pillow packs  and display boxes few of the biscuit packaging design have  been attractive  to consumers  here are few examples

Innovative Packaging ,  Unique Packaging , New Packaging Ideas
 Britannia little heart biscuit in snack type pouch

                                    Pure magic cookies in drum
Pure  Magic , Pure  Magic , Pure Magic , packaging
Pure   Magic , Pure  Magic , Pure  Magic
 Pure magic cookies in  paper bags

Nutri choice digestive in  paper board  boxes

Aliva in standing pouches
Aliva  Packaging , aliva , aliva

Bakery Boxes - Packaging Ideas for bakery products

 You might have come across wonderfull gift wraps  and boxes containing cakes ,cookies , wafers and biscuits .  Home based bakeries ,Smaller bakeries , bakery cafe chains and artisan bakery manufacturers all caters their customer with these customised bakery boxes .Numerous design and color combinations  are available

Few popular design of bakery boxes

bakery boxes

Projects which can be undertaken by ISO -14001 Certified bakery plants

ISO -14001  EMS ( environment management system ) are international standards for companies adhering to cut down pollution and conserve environment in and around  its premises .

The ISO -14001  envisages companies to  take continuous improvement plans with respect to environment and resources .

In an ISO audits  the  companies need to convince  auditors for commitment of the firm in implementing projects which saves /conserve  resources or reduce pollution .

Requirement for these projects  are

  • Leader
  • Members
  • Start date
  • Completion Date
  • Capital cost
  • Break up of activity
  • Measurable s
  • End results
Every Department in a company has to take projects  as mandated in ISO -14001. Be it Sales/Maintenance/Production/Purchase/Stores/Sales/HR/Accts

Few of the projects could  be

  • Energy reduction ( it could be  in  different areas such as electrical / thermal.  )
  • Water conservation through recycling / reuse/reduce
  • Spillage elimination  of ingredients / dough /oil/
  • Control of flour dust
  • Mapping routes of  distribution channels
  • Usage of solar  energy for lighting/heating
  • Low cost automation in production/packaging section
  • Energy savings in Office.
  • Small savings such as using  emails instead of paper memos
  • Issuing Po online instead  in paper
  • Getting material from ISO - 14001  certified vendors
  • Recycling packaging waste
  • Fuel efficiency through burners
  • Using natural gas instead of diesel oil
  • Heat recovery in ovens
  • CFC free refrigerants
  • Plantation in and around factory
  • Rain harvesting
  • Adopting and improving parks in neighbourhood
Several projects can be undertaken in EMS which helps companies to conserve resources and helps in sustainable growth.

Reduce cost of production

Booming CupCake business in USA

cup cake business , cup cake business , cup cake bakeries , cup cake cafes


Bakeries across New York and the rest of the country are finding out that cupcakes can equal cash.

For Emma Simon, happiness is a red velvet cupcake.

"She'll gobble up the frosting, and then she'll eat the rest of the cupcake," Emma's mother, Anna Coatsworth, said. Cupcakes are whipping up an international frenzy.

Specialty shops are multiplying, and the bad economy is feeding the craving. For a recession-weary public, the humble cupcake is a sweet – and affordable – escape.

"We were really something they could hold onto with a little nostalgia and a little bit of comfort," Steve Abrams, owner of Magnolia Bakery in New York City, said.

Abrams expanded from the original location in 2008, and is now up to four New York bakeries – plus one in Dubai. "We get requests every day from all over the world for franchises," Abrams says.

Each shop bakes about 5,000 cupcakes each day, and a mail order business is in the works. All told, sales this year could hit $20 million.

That kind of success is hard to ignore, which is why there's suddenly more competition than ever fighting for a piece of the pie.

Godiva has been selling chocolates for the better part of a century. Now, it's selling cupcakes by mail order.

Even the White House has discovered Washington's Georgetown Cupcake. Two sisters started the business in 2008, hoping to sell 100 cupcakes a day. On Valentine's Day, they cranked out 25,000.

"It's fantastic – we couldn't imagine doing anything else," co-owner Sophie LaMontagne said.

In fact, they don't have time to do anything else. In addition to their two stores, the sisters have started their own mail order service, shipping well over 1,000 cupcakes each day.

Cupcakes are a $6 billion industry. The famous Magnolia Bakery gets about five franchise requests a day from as far away as India and Kuwait, but Magnolia has no plans to franchise – at least, not yet.
CBS :CBS 2's Alexis Christoforous contributed to this report.

PFA Act of India and relevant standards for bakery manufacturers

Now that  the act is taken over by new  FSSAI act 2006  still the  bakery manufacturers should be aware of the guidelines and standards given in this pfa act 1954- Pfa rules1955

A bakery manufacturers can find  standards for  

Anti -Oxidants
Bakery Products
fats and oils
 Artificial colors

Guidelines for labeling and packaging and related information

Here is the Link

pfa act 1954

FSSAI brings rules for licensing and adulteration under fssai act 2006

Just  a reminder  to all  Indian bakery manufacturer s that  the new act  of food safety and standards 2006   is effective  since  Jan2010 . Please  ensure your firm registration with authorities in proper category .

Around one lakh cases related to food adulteration are pending in courts. The conviction rate of these cases is only 1%, said PI Suvrathan, chairman, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. The prime reason for the low conviction rate was faulty designing of the law under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, which was based on sample testing of the final product. If the sample was found adulterated by the food inspector, the food manufacturer was taken to the court. However, he would manage to go free if he proved that circumstances other than manufacturing were responsible for adulteration. For example, the way the product was transported or stored. This allowed him to evade from the 3-6 months jail term as prescribed under the PFA Act.

The laboratories that tested these samples too were not properly equipped. “Every country should have protocols which are uniformly applied to the entire laboratories, “said Suvrathan. The food manufacturer used the loophole in the law to pass on the blame to someone else. However, with the FSSAI coming up, the method of law implementation will change radically. The FSSAI will put the responsibility of food safety on the manufacturer and not the government or the law-enforcing agency. The prime responsibility would lie on the manufacturer and secondary responsibility on the food handler. In case an offence is committed, the manufacturer will be given an opportunity to rectify his product. If the act is repeated, then a warning or suspension may take place.

Said Suvrathan, “For the first time science-based protocols are being laid down. We are developing a simplified system of safety standards which will be a part of the licensing regulation. Around 5,000 food professionals will be accredited who can assist manufacturers in auditing, certifying food units and helping them understand safety laws. The role of the regulating agency will be not only to inspect but also to achieve food safety through interaction with school, colleges, panchayats, corporations and all the stake-holders.

With the FSS Act, the role of food inspector will be replaced by the food safety officer. Also, till now food manufacturers had to comply under various licences proposed under different Acts like the FPO, MPO, etc. Now, all licensing will be integrated in one licence known as the FSSA licence. FSSAI will be licensing all the larger units like milk companies producing above 50,000 litres a day, meat processing units etc. The rest of the units will be licensed by states, in turn by districts, municipal corporations, panchayats etc. Smaller units with monthly income up to one lakh rupees a year or limited quantity of production can simply go for registration and not licensing.

Also, for the first time the FSSAI has introduced the rule that if the regulating authority fails to respond within 60 days of application of licence/registration, then the food manufacturer can go ahead and start operations without approval/registration. Thus the responsibility has been shifted to the regulator, said Suvrathan.

Date  12.03.2010
Author :Irum Khan

link to fssai :

Bread Slicers - Bread packaging

Local bakeries normally supply  breads without slicing and in loaves where as the popular format are sliced bread . Once the bread comes out from oven they are cooled for 1-2 hours in cooling tunnel and brought   either manually or through conveyors for slicing . Bread slicers  have inflated bagging system where one can pack bread manually or it can be automated .

Selection of Bread slicer is done by following parameters

Dimensions of bread
No of  slices
Thickness of slices
Breads per hour
Blades design
Grinding and regrinding of blades

Bread Slicer can be stand alone or can be integrated into atomatic bread packaging .

Mcvities resealable packing tube - Biscuit Packaging Ideas

 Mcvities resealable packing tube

Understanding Energy balance of a Biscuit Oven

 energy balance of baking oven , energy balance of biscuit oven
 Under standing Energy balance of biscuit  oven is important   for  energy saving s in baking oven
Input to the oven  is the heat energy from combustion of  fuel  ( lpg , cng , ldo/hsd/ , electrical ) . One must evaluate the fuel options available  for the factors  such as

  • Availability  of fuel
  • Cost per unit
  • Calorific Value of the fuel
  • Maintenance cost on the Burners

Hence the fuel with best value ( calorific value  per unit  x  net cost per unit )  should be  sourced .

Now Oven out put in energy terms  are

Heat Loss during baking of biscuit

Heat  Loss during evaporation of moisture - Flour quality plays important role plus the mixing quality

Heat Loss  through  flue gas - Combustion generates flue  gases which escapes through stacks . Heat recovery system  can be installed recover this heat  .Air to fuel ratio has to be checked  so as to prevent excessive heating going out as flue gas .

Heat Loss through radiation - Biscuit Ovens have either duct s or Pipe s through which hat air circulates . Considerable heat are lost in  these mediums . Good Insulation  can be provided to minimize the loss of heat through  Biscuit Oven body

Heat Loss in Band Heating  - Band re heating s are now days incorporated  by manufactures by providing enclosure at the  bottom  through  which  the bands returns  to the feeding end .

For majority of the   Baking Ovens it has been seen that it  utilise' s only  40 - 50%  of the Heat Input . Efforts  has to be made  for optimisation  of  heat energy

Ventilation systems for baking hall

Bakery halls  normally have ovens installed in it  .Special attention needs to be given for ventilation in the baking hall . Roof are  designed in such a way that it  helps in natural ventilation.  The temperatures in these halls touches 50- 55 deg c in summer in some places  which makes condition difficult for bakers and operators to work  in these condition .

Normally bigger plants with more than two or three units placed in  the same hall s  have more problem than a single unit . Ensure that the roof height are something between 30 - 35 ft  from the ground level  and have ample space for heat to disperse .

Following methods are used to  for  ventilation

Ventilation system , Ventilation system , axial fan , ventilation fan

Forced  Ventilation
 Axial  fans are installed at the roof  with capacities  matching the  hall dimensions .  fans are installed in the walls  as well roof  supported on the trusses and wall . structure needs to be erected for installation , repair and dismantling of these fans .This methods consume more energy as axial fans are drive by motors .

Natural ventilation

Roof are designed such a way that  it helps  natural ventilation  . series of wire mesh is fixed in the entire length which allows hot air to escape through it  and preventing dust other foreign bodies to go inside the  hall . fans can be installed which can use the hot airs  to run itself hence creating draft for air to escape to the atmosphere  through roof .

Few general steps for energy saving in bakery plants

Following steps  can  be taken with minimum ofinvestment to save energy in big to medium bakeries .
 Automated Bakeries  now have better and bigger equipments which consume more energy . Human comfort had made bakeries investing in HVAC  utilities .  Process requirements  requires boilers and compressors .


Reduce mounting height

Timer for outside lighting to be changed according to season

Cleaning of Translucent sheet and window

Switch off lighting during lunch hours and when not in operation.

Clean luminaries

Provide task lighting in packing area

Use T5 lamps for future replacement

Specular reflectors for administration block

Use Maximum Day lighting

Give infrared controlled switching circuit

Increase mounting height of Sodium vapour lamp near to outside storage

Compressed Air system:

Conduct leakage test regularly

Reduce set pressure of compressed air system

Provide gun for cleaning operation

Use low pressure air for cleaning

Misuse of compressed air such as body cleaning, floor cleaning must be discouraged.

Air Conditioning

Provide temperature thermostat control

Give accessibility

Regular cleaning of filters/evaporators

Provide fast acting door

Provide Water curtains for condenser

Automatic control for A.C.operation

Increase air flow circulation


Monitor flue gas parameters for  oven lines

Monitor fuel  consumption of each line of oven

Electrical system

Installation of Harmonic filters

Automatic power factor control (APFC) for all transformers

Biscuit Packaging Ideas

Different  type s of packaging for biscuit
biscuit packaging ideas , biscuit pack , packaging ideas for biscuits

FDA warnings for misleading food packaging labels

Food companies in  their pursuit for higher sales put up  whacky ads and frivilous labels  claiming wonders on consumer healths  are now being subjected to government scrutiny  all across the globe .Here is an instance where FDA has issued warning letters to companies putting up misleading statements on food labels

A report

In a crackdown on dubious claims on food packages, the Food and Drug Administration has sent warning letters to 17 producers for making what it said were misleading statements about nutrition and health benefits. And the agency issued an industry-wide challenge to upgrade the quality of nutrition labeling.

The warning letters apply to 22 products and challenge labeling language on such issues as fat content, nutrient standards and the purported ability of a particular food to prevent medical problems.

The clampdown was hailed as "a once in a generation event" by the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a non-profit advocacy group which recently released a report documenting purported labeling abuses, including several that earned FDA warning letters.

By coming down on mislabeling, FDA is demonstrating that "the food label is an essential weapon in the toolbox in the fight against obesity and other diseases," said Bruce Silverglade, CSPI's director of legal affairs and a co-author of the report.

Among the targets of the FDA action was a label for Mrs. Smith's Coconut Custard Pie, produced by Schwan's Consumer Brands North America of Bloomington, Minnesota. It advertised that the pie contained no trans fat, but did not disclose that it contained significant levels of saturated fat and total fat.

Similarly, Diamond Foods of Stockton, CA, was cited for a label that claimed that its shelled walnuts warded off maladies such as arthritis, cancer and heart disease. Foods generally are not permitted to make disease-fighting claims.

Read more on,0,157332.story

Energy savings in Industrial Lighting for factories

Many big bakery plants have  to install large quantities of lighting fixtures   for their plant  these lighting equipments consume energy  in bulk inflating cost of energy for bakeries .few ideas to reduce energy cost in  Industrial lighting .

GMP 's ( Good Manufacturing Practices) in Bakery - Pest Management

Any bakery or food installation needs to have good pest management as pest are common problem in such areas .  A dedicated team either inhouse or outsourced need to be in place in such installation with all necessary records , tools and equipments .

Following are the good manufacturing practices for pest control and management in bakeries .

  • Special reporting  type services

  • Pest  control records including  bait plans , label and dating

  • Baiting and Proofing standards including monitoring

  • Fly killers position and condition

  • Good factory perimeter control

  • Storage and house keeping standards

  • Access incoming ingredients for inspection

  • Segregation  of damaged  or returned goods

  • Safety and technical documentation  ie approved baits and pesticides

  • Freedom from pest action plan documentation

Source : World Food Program

Britannia Industries Ltd to Open Little Biscuit Factory for Kids at Dubai Mall

Despite its phenomenal growth, Britannia, one of India’s largest food companies, is scaling down a very special production facility in Dubai. KidZania – a fantasy world dedicated to budding wannabes – is taking on a model Britannia bakery, where bite-sized bakers can learn the art of the biscuit business.

Children will dress up as bakers at one of the newest additions to KidZania and spend about 15 minutes with the Zupervisor (Master Baker) understanding the process of how biscuits are made.

The youngsters will mix and roll the dough, moulding it into new shapes to be baked in the oven. When the time is right, not only do the next generation of bakers get to eat the cookies, but they are paid in Kidzos (the currency of KidZania) for their efforts.

Arvind Kumar, CEO, Britannia International, said it was a great way for kids to learn the Britannia ropes. “The entire concept of KidZania is very innovative and it opens up literally hundreds of doors to give them a fun insight into the world at work. We’re delighted to work with KidZania to introduce our industry to these children.”

Britannia’s biscuit factory is located on Level 1 of KidZania in the Dubai Mall.

 Source :Al Bawaba (

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