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fuels used in bakery ovens

Bakery oven s are critical component of bakery plant . These ovens are used to bake the dough/batter to get baked goods which are then packed and sent for consumers . These ovens have different kind of burner s which have wide range of fuel to be used.

Following are the fuel which can be used for Bakery ovens

Diesel Oil
LDO - Ligth diesel oil
HSD- High Speed diesel
RFO- Re - heat furnace oil

NG - Natural gas
LPG- Liquefied petroleum gas
CNG-- Compressed natural gas
LNG--Liquefied natural gas


These fuels have their own characteristics and as per availability , price, transportation , storage and safety issues bakery manufacturers selects the fuel. Gas has advantage of cleaner fuel with low spillages or leakages where as diesel oil has advantage of higher calorific value . RFO is the cheapest option for bakery manufacturers but one has to check the pollution norms as the RFO has a higher content of sulphur in it.The net cost is calculated taking into account the calorific value of the fuel .Geography has also role for selection of fuel few areas has abundance of petroleum product where as few areas has scarcity of these petroleum products .
For few products like wafer the electricity is the best option as for the hygiene of the products.

Manufacturer after selecting the fuel can ask bakery oven manufacturers to select the burner s accordingly .

Britannia controls 100% of Daily bread

Bakery major Britannia has increased its stake from 50% to 100% in its jv with Daily bread which it acquired in 2006 . This would help Britannia to consolidates its presence in bread markets . It has not rolled out this brand nationaly as they are testing local markets with concepts like retail bakery chains with cafe like ambience .

Read article on ET

Biscuit manufacturers are moving out of NOIDA

Noida was once described as most industrialised zone near capital Delhi , but recent incidents and the taxation in that area has made business men to shift their operations . Companies like Surya foods and lancer biscuits have shifted their base to near by state uttarakhand .

Read article on exit of bakery units from Noida

Indian Bakeries adopting BRC ( British Retail Consortium ) food safety standards

The two Indian bakeries which have implemented BRC standards for food safety are
Ravi foods.
Unibic Biscuits P Ltd.

What is BRC ?
The BRC (British Retail Consortium) Global Standard for Food Safety was created to ensure supplier compliance and secure retailers’ ability to guarantee the quality and safety of the food products they sell. Today it is used worldwide as a framework for any business (retailers and processors) to assist the production of safe food and the selection of reliable suppliers.

Developed by the British Retail Consortium (BRC), a UK trade organization that represents the interests of UK retailers, the BRC Global Standard - Food was created to establish a standard for due diligence and supplier approval.
The standard has been adopted by food manufacturers throughout the world, especially by those organizations supplying British retailers. Third-party certification to the standard helps manufacturers, brand owners and retailers fulfil their legal obligations and safeguard consumers. The standard covers a comprehensive scope of product safety areas, as well as the legal and due diligence responsibilities of both the supplier and the retailer.

Who is it relevant to?
It is particularly suitable for companies supplying food products to UK retailers, regardless of the product or country of origin. In most cases certification to this standard is a pre-condition for supplying to UK retailers
The principal requirements of the standard are the adoption and implementation of a HACCP system, a documented and effective quality management system and a control of factory environmental standards, products, processes and personnel.

It is one among many certifications which are applicable to food Industry .

Allergen in bakery products

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction. Allergens are substances that, in some people, the immune system recognizes as "foreign" or "dangerous" but cause no response for most people.

Food allergies are not as common as food sensitivity, but some foods such as peanuts (really a legume), nuts, seafood and shellfish are the cause of serious allergies in many people. Officially, the Food and Drug Administration,USA does recognize 8 foods as being common for allergic reactions in a large segment of the sensitive population, which includes, peanuts, tree nuts, eggs, milk, shellfish, fish, wheat and their derivatives, soy and their derivatives, and sulphites (chemical based, often found in flavors and colors in foods) at 10ppm and over. It should be noted that other countries, due to differences in genetic profiles of its citizens and different levels of exposure to different foods, the "official" allergen list will change.

Gluten -gluten free product are due to some people having allergy to gluten s.Gluten free bread and cookies are now availbale in market

Its mandatory to put allergen warning on packs . You would see allergen label on packed bakery product like " this product has nuts and milk traces"

Benefit of HACCP in bakeries

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) is a system, which identifies specific hazards and preventative measures for their control to minimise the risk of producing defective products and services for the each step of the food chain. HACCP has been adopted by all major food companies and are mandatory for exports to certain countries . Bakery manufacturers would gain by implementing HACCP .
HACCP determines the critical limits in the critical control points (CCPs) in the process and determines the critical limits by monitoring and applying amendatory and inhibiting factors. It is very difficult to determine the source of the fault when there is a problem with the end product in the factories where in HACCP is not applied.
In brief, HACCP is a proactive risk management system that contain all steps of food chain, from raw material manufacturer to end product and analyse possible dangers and guard. In industry, for successful HACCP system, a successful team is required.Pre-requisite programs and Standard Sanitation Operation Procedures (SSOP) are also required for HACCP.

How do we implement HACCP ?
As described its s analysis of hazard in a given environment and declaring critical control points . We start with going through entire process of production right from raw material unloading to finished good dispatch. We take entire inputs and actions in process which might effect process . After that we rank them on a scale of severity .Those which get maximum severity scale are declared critical points hence controls are devised to minimise the impact
Factors taken could be hazards , impact on brand , legal compliance's , damage to health of consumers, etc . SOP are documented with logs and records for any deviation from standard procedures . Areas are marked numbered and highlighted so that every one knows what is the critical control point .Internal audits and external audits are conducted for compliance.

What Are The Pre-Requisite Programs?
(GAP) Good Agriculture Practice
(GVP) Good Veterinary Practice
(GMP Good Manufacturing Practice
(GHP) Good Hygiene Practice
(GPP) Good Production Practice
(GDP) Good Distribution Practice
(GTP) Good Trade Practice

What Are The Benefits of HACCP?
Preventing possible hazards and supplying safe products
Minimising risks of food poisoning
Making increase consumer confidence
Making increase industry authenticity
Supplying active auto-control system
Minimizing product cost
Maximising advantageous
Making easier marketing
Increasing products’ shelf life
Making solve product problems systematically
Making product export easy, due to it international acceptability.
Increasing food safety and hygiene conscious of food industry stuff.

CCP in bakeries could be : Haccp in bakery industry  have its own features which includes identifying  critical control points  which have significant  impact on the business .Haccp  for  bakery  industry  is the most potent tool in food safety management systems which also includes prp( prerequisite programs ,oprp (operational requisite programs) and ccp's .

Oven burners
Baking temperatures
Storage temperatures 
Metal detectors

learn more  on bakery business 

Sugar prices to continue upward trend

Recent internatiional sugar organisation prediction is that due to deficit in sugar production ,the prices would maintain upward trend. Sugar is major raw material for bakery products . Any swing in prices directly affects bakers around the world .

Check this news article.

Health risks in Bakeries

Bakeries are not known for Major occupational health risk yet precautions should be taken to protect workers , employees acquiring disease related to their work in bakery plant . manufacturing units should go for OSHA 18000 & ISO 14001 for better work environment and productivity .Consumer should also encourage with their preference for product s which are produced with companies having such certification .

Major areas which may cause certain health risks in bakery are

Flour Dust ,Sugar dust ,Biscuit dust
Flour handling , loading and unloading areas , Vibratory sieves , Manual Dusting during process.Prolonged exposure to flour dust may cause asthma , bronchitis .Similarly in case of biscuit dust and sugar dust while grinding or manual addition of these ingredients .Mask and spillages should be avoided . Automated system for flour handling to be installed to reduce flour dust .

Noise level
Noise level at certain area may cause deafness if workers are exposed to higher decibel levels for longer duration .As per factory act decibels should be lower than 70.0 db .Ear buds or rotation of workers after every 4 hours can help reducing exposure to sound. Periodic maintenance and monitoring of sound level should be implemented .

Odours of chemical and additives can be harmful for human. These chemicals should be kept in closed container. Worker s can use face mask and gloves while performing task with chemicals

Ammonia is most common ingredients for bakery product but is harm full if inhaled in larger dose . Pungent smell come out the moment ammonia comes in contact ambient temp. Even if presence ammonia vapours are within permissible level in most of the cases it does not mean that we don't take precautionary measures .

Oven operators have risk of skin disease , breathlessness and other diseases in case of prolonged stay without any precaution .Temperatures are around 50 -55deg centigrade around oven or baking area . Sufficient ventilation system should be installed like exhaust fan , natural ventilation through roof etc .

Silos and Tanks
Raw material silos or sugar or liquid tanks or fuel storage tanks these needs to be cleaned periodically . Workers should take proper precaution while performing this task as toxic gases are formed in these tanks which effects health .


Precaution should be taken while handling insulation in bakery plant as these can lead to allergies and skin disease. Workers can wear protective coveralls or boiler suite with gloves while handling insulation . Ointments are also available to remove itching while working with insulation's .

Other areas are related to stress on body part while performing feeding for packing machines or loading and unloading heavier loads in Factory . Proper material handling should be provided for movement from one place to another . Mechanical means should be provided for lifting and moving heavier items in bakery plants .ie trolleys , pallet trucks , electric chain hoist , titling devices etc

Read Article on Health risk in bakery

ITC has 11% market share in biscuit s

ITC the tobacco major has managed to get 11% market share of biscuits with competitors like BRITANNIA , PARLE , PRIYA GOLD
ITC is planning to expands its production base as biscuit market has seen growth rate between 15-20%.

Read Article on ET

RADIO FREQUENCY - Post baking drying technique

Biscuit manufacturers all across world have following options to increase capacity in existing plant . They have been trying various method to achieve this .

  • Increase the oven length hence increasing moulder /cutting speed .Not all ovens has this advantage you have to check whether another zone can be added to existing biscuit oven or not .

  • Run plant at maximum speed with increased temperatures in different biscuit oven zones resulting in reduced baking time .This has disadvantage that the quality of biscuit gets affected.

  • Using Radio frequency dryers at the delivery end of biscuit ovens ,this helps in reducing moisture further by 10 - 11% hence we can increase the speed of moulder/cutter resulting higher output .

Principle on which radio frequency dryer work s is that as water has As product exiting the baking oven enters the RF post-baking dryer, it passes through an electrode array having an alternating electric field which reverses its polarity at a rate of 40.68 million times per second.
Water is comprised of "polar molecules" which can be likened to each molecule having a north and south pole. When passing through an alternating electric field, polar molecules react similar to the way bar magnets behave in an alternating magnetic field, constantly realigning themselves to face the opposite pole. At a frequency of 40MHz, friction caused by this rapid movement causes the polar molecules of water to quickly heat, wherever moisture is present, throughout the entire thickness of the product.

Nonpolar materials such as fat, oil, and dry ingredients do not react and, therefore, are not directly heated by RF energy. In the case of bakery products, this means an RF dryer will preferentially heat and dry the wettest area of a product without heating the areas already dry. Typically, there is greater moisture in the interior of a product as it exits a conventional oven. Therefore, this moist area will preferentially absorb more of the RF energy.

Developed for high-volume cookie production Post-Baking Dryers quickly and efficiently remove residual moisture trapped within the center of the product, permitting conventional ovens to run at the maximum speed that a product can be produced with the correct loft, crumb structure, and color. These RF dryers are available in different band widths

Advantages of RF heating
Increased Throughput - Up to 30% increase for crackers and often up to 40% for cookies.

Elimination of Checking - By greatly reducing the moisture variation throughout the thickness of the product, checking caused by differential shrinkage is eliminated.

Excellent Control of Final Moisture Content - Final moisture is controlled to approximately +/-0.25%.

Independent Color Control - Since moisture is controlled in the RF dryer, color development in the oven can be done without concern for final moisture content
Refer for more details on RF technology

SWISS ROLLS - product review

Swiss rolls have huge popularity in western worlds . You look at any shop or supermarkets shelf are filled with various kind of Swiss roll with different flavours chocolate , milk , orange , vanilla and strawberry .
To produce Swiss roll in volumes you require a plant similar to biscuit plants .with accessories to fill in cream , jam or jelly in the rolls . Mixing is done to produce batter which is then passed on to baking oven which bakes the sheet which is then allowed to cool and jams are spread over to the sheet .With rolling and cutting the sheets are rolled over to form rolls which are then fed into flow wrap machines with the trays or without trays for packing .
Major Ingredients for batter of swiss rolls are flour , sugar , egg , water , flavour , baking powder ,essence , perservatives ,colors

Britannia did tried to produce these Swiss roll but failed to market it . several local bakeries are producing it but within local markets .
Now with change in market bakery product manufacturers can try out Swiss rolls which are popular in rest of the world .
Problems with Swiss roll are
Sweetness which doesn't go well with Indian consumers
Shorter shelf life
Refrigerated logistics and storage
Costly equipments
Hygienic conditions
Consumer awareness of such products

Hope to find Swiss rolls in Indian market soon .

Different type of biscuits in Indian market

When you visit grocery shop , malls , super market , hypermarkets and mom & pop shops ,for your monthly grocery shopping bakery products are must in your list . Now days you have plethora of products to buy from manufacturers who are coming up with new varieties to lure customers .

Bakery products due to their longer shelf life can be stored for longer period . Also its popular among all cross section of populations from rich to poor . from kids to old .from teenager to adults , From mom to pop .bakery products have a distinct advantage from other food products as it s any time and to any one product.
Here are few popular types of biscuit .

Plain sweet type
Plain salty type
Plain sweet n salty type
Cracker variety
Cream sandwich type
Wafer biscuit type
Digestive types
Marie type s
Enrobed biscuits
Jelly filled biscuits

With branded products all over the market you can find local producers giving you a better type of biscuit .

Product review :GOOD DAY biscuit

Good day range of biscuits are produced by Britannia Industries and is one of the most popular brand s of biscuit in India. Its turnover is more than Rs 100 crores. Its the leader in branded cookies segment . It has got variants like butter , cashew ,pista and good day choco nuts . Pack size available are slug pack of 92gms , 207gms .

Nearest competitors are Priya golds- Butter bite ,Unibic cookies , ITC -sunfeast -golden bakery -butter nuts

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