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Role of Bakery Ingredients

bakery ingredients

Various Ingredients are used in Bread and Biscuit manufacturing .Each Ingredients has specific role to play during manufacturing process . Here are few major bakery ingredient and their role Sugar Primary role of sugar in bread and biscuit is provide sweetness( taste) to the product .Color to the product due to carmalisation .Color of the crust in bread loaves is due to the sugar .Basic role of sugar is to activate the yeast to produce carbon dioxide and alochol during bread manufacturing .Note: When preparing for mixing yeast is separately being put into ammonium chloride and sugar solution . Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil -( HVO )Main function of HVO is to retain the moisture inside the dough.Give smoothness to the bite . Salt It provides taste to the product . Salt act as controlling agent against wild yeast activity .Thus controlled yeast activity can provide better texture or network .

GMS ( Glycerol Mono stearate)-Its act as emulsifier which binds together the oil and water molecules and it helps bread to hold moisture .

SSL ( Sodium Stearoyl lactilate)-It is also known as Smoother .It is a compound which retains softness in bread and delays staling of bread .

SMP ( Skimmed Milk Powder) Solution-Main function of Skimmed milk powder is to give flavour to the product and sweetens the product.

Ammonium Chloride-Ammonium chloride provides Nitrogen which used to activate yeast in presence of water and sugar.

Bread Improver-These are used for improving texture of bread and add to the flavour.

Dough Conditioner-These are used to strengthen weak flour and generally enzymes alpha - amylase .Its added to break down the starch into sugar and alcohol. These are prepared from fungal sources .

L - cysteine-L -cysteine acts on sulphide groups and proteins and acts as reducing agent . It mellows the dough .

Ascorbic Acid-Ascorbic acid acts as oxidising agent which acts upon the sulphide bonds of amino acid ( gluten) which results in stronger bonds which increases resistance and reduces extensibility of dough.Ascorbic acid reacts slowly and for longer time and is active even at the baking stage .

Potassium Bromate-Potassium bromate too acts as oxidising agent the difference between ascorbic acid and potassium bromate is that its a strong reagent its activity time is short and reaction is strong.It also helps in increasing resistance of dough and reducing extensibility.Note : It is interesting to know that both oxidising and reducing agents are used in bread. The reason to use both are that we need to get balanced property of dough. We can make bread without L- cysteine or Ascorbic acid

Calcium propianate-Calcium propianate acts as preservative. Its main function is to protect product from any fungal infection .Hence increases shelf life of the product. The quantity of Calcium propianate varies with season.In rainy season quantities are increased.

Acetic Acid-Acetic acid is also used as preservative .It protects products from bacterial infection . As it reduces the pH of the dough and turns the dough towards acidic side .Its quantity also varies as per the season.

Yeast - Previous post on Role and type of yeast

Britannia resolves ''Tiger" issue with Kraft Food Inc

Britannia and Kraft foods Inc of USA has come to an agreement with each other on use of "Tiger " brand . This was disclosed by Mr Nusli Wadia Chairman of Britannia Industries Ltd .Tiger Brand has been the main issue between earlier partner Danone which used Tiger brand in countries like Malaysia and Singapore without the consent of Britannia . A case was registered against Danone for breach of Intellectual Property. Kraft foods have bought biscuit business from Danone in year 2007.


Yeast -Types and Roles in Bakery Industry

Bakery Industry uses Yeast in various types for bread and biscuit production .Yeast acts as leavening agent and it gives puffy structure to bread and Cracker biscuits .Yeast is an unicellular living organism .Its growth is max at higher humidity and temperature 45 deg c .Yeast action on food releases carbon dioxide which gets entrapped in dough and gives puffiness to the product after baking .Yeast are used for sour dough products or Sponge dough products . Sponge are prepared in cracker production yeast is added during mixing are then kept for 18-20 hrs before production.

Commercial yeast are of two types - Compressed yeast and Dry yeast

Compressed yeast - These can be further calssified as
  • Breweries yeast - It acts on malt to give alcohol and carbon dioxide.
  • Distillers yeast- It acts on molasses to give alcohol and carbon dioxide .
  • Bakers yeast - It acts on sugar to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol. Carbon dioxide is the main by product.

Other features of compressed yeast

  • Its available in cake form
  • Its cheaper than dry yeast
  • Moisture content is 80%
  • Life of compressed yeast is 5 days
  • Cell usage is 90-95%

Dry Yeast

  • Its costlier than Compressed yeast
  • Its is available in powder form
  • Moisture is around 5%
  • Life of dry yeast is more than one year
  • Cell usage around 60%

Cotton Conveyor Manufacturers/Suppliers in India

Bakery Industry in India rely heavily on cotton conveyors for their conveyors in production process . Bread , Biscuit and Cakes manufacturing invariably uses cotton conveyor on their conveyors .Other industry also have wide application of cotton conveyors .
Advantages of cotton conveyor has already been discussed in earlier post on

Bakery Industry specially biscuit process industry buy cotton conveyor in bulk with width up to 1.5mtrs and thickness varies from 1.0mm to 3.5 mm . These cotton conveyors are manufactured into rolls .Other varieties of cotton conveyor are Cotton Nylon mix .It could be procured in open lengths and endless forms.Most these cotton conveyors are manufactured in Automated hand looms as per the requirement of manufacturers .

Major suppliers /manufacturers of cotton conveyor are

  • G..C. Dutta and Sons,Kolkata
  • Scandia Belting, Kolkata
  • Dolar gold belts and Fans pvt ltd, Kolkata
  • Industrial Filters and Fabrics pvt ltd , Indore
  • K. Dharmalingam , Trichy
  • Pachiyamman Endless Webs,Trichy
  • Madura Coats Pvt Ltd , Banglore
  • Khosla Profile Pvt Ltd , Mumbai
  • Shri Rajalaxmi Conveyors , Trichy

High Fructose Corn Syrup replaced by sugar in bakery products by manufacturers

Many manufacturers and retail chain groups like Kraft,Starbuck has started replacing High Fructose Corn Syrup from their products as there has been intense campaign against HFCS by consumers and food nutritionist.

High fructose corn syrup ( HFCS) is used by bakery manufacturers to give the product a longer shelf life , Keeps product moist and price of corn syrup is far cheaper than beet or cane sugar .
But now that anti -hfcs has gained a firm footing on consumers mind, manufacturers are now gradually substituting hfcs by sugar . Although scientist have declared both sugar and hfcs are bad for health .
HFCS is thought to depletes the soil quality on land where it is farmed as compare to natural cane sugar and as it is prepared from complex chemical reactions with enzyme people has impression that natural sugar is more Eco- friendly. Researchers have reported detecting traces of mercury in a small sampling of high-fructose corn syrup, though they cautioned that the study was limited.


Utilities in bakery plants

Bakery plants production related machinery's and process are supported by various utilities equipment and they are as important as bakery equipment and machinery's .Selection of these Utility related equipments are crucial for plant operations as well as energy consumption

Few of the Utilities plants for bakery

  • Air conditioning
  • Chillers
  • Cold storage
  • Boilers
  • D.G. sets
  • Air Compressors
  • Pumps
  • Fire Hydrants systems
  • Hot water generators
  • Effluent treatment Plants

Proper maintenance and overhauling has to be scheduled for these equipments for smooth production in bakery plants

Are you interseted in bakery business ?

Bakery products has gained popularity in masses.New products are launched very often with advent of new technologies and packaging bakery products are preferred as any time food. Bakery products are popular among all class ,gender ,age and geography .

Entrepreneurs and business owners are putting up plants , retail chain or even few enthusiast open home bakeries to cater to popular demands for cookies , bread , biscuits , buns , rusk , pastries and cakes .

Here are few bakery businesses plan

  • Home made bakery products-The easiest way to do business in bakery products is to start it from home .You can have limited customers and with unique recipes you can supply products like cakes,cookies , biscuits for personal occasions like birthdays , kitty parties,marriages ,meetings ,seminars and official functions of both govt or private firms.
  • Automated bakery plants-Here investors can put up big automated plants for wide variety of bakery products. The volumes are very high and caters mass population &of different geography . This models is useful for people with large amount of finances and interested in long term and brand building exercise .Automated plants requires plant and machinery with higher levels of supply chain networks with functions like sales & marketing , procurement , finance and production ,etc .Employee numbers are very high .
  • Small Bakeries-When people or entrepreneur has finance constrains then can opt for small bakeries which caters for local and close areas for sales .cost of advertisement are low .Can have direct relationship with customer and can produce tailor made products for customers . Business could be good if products are innovative and quality superior to beat branded products produced by bakery manufacturers .You might have seen people waiting for fresh bakery products outside of bakeries.
  • Third party manufacturing/private labels(outsourcing)-It applies for firms with idle capacity to produce ,companies with brand equity ,investors with finances. Many manufacturers are ready to manufacture for third party .Advantage of this model is that one doesn't require plant and machinery ,land and employees liabilities to do business.
  • Export/ ImportTrading-This model is the simplest form of doing bakery business with either exporting bakery products to different countries by buying from ones own country or Importing bakery products from other country and distributing to ones own country. Disadvantage is that the margins are limited and doesn' t carry any brand equity.
  • Retail chain-This bakery business model is similar to any other food retail chains like Mcdonalds ,Starbucks , Barista ,KFC etc. Entrepreneur has to build one central bakery from where these retails chain would get their supplies or bakery products can be out -sourced from other bakeries.These retail outlets are gaining popularity now days as customers can have their favorite product at one place and enjoy it with great ambiance. This is very good model for doing business as one can charge premium price for the products .Bakery courts in malls/supermarkets/multiplexes.This is similar to retail chain concepts only difference is that bakery court is in rental space but footfalls are very in these kind of food courts as people love to eat their shopping spree. Families come together and enjoy food in these kinds of courts.Bakery Speciality products can be popularised through such bakery retail chains .
  • Franchise / Dealership - With numerous top brands and retail chain world wide or national brands one can tie up with these firm and open franchise or become dealers of their products
  • Online bakery shops-The net savvy entrepreneur can launch website store and can sell various bakery product. The basic advantage is that investment is low and products are available 24x7x365 days .You can find several online web portals for cakes and other bakery products
  • Pet animal food ( DOG BISCUIT )-A very promising business opportunity is available for bakery industry that is of special bakery products for pet animals .These can be tailor made for dogs ,cats and other animal .Even these bakery products can be mixed with animal feeds.The popularity of dog biscuit is a good example.

Britannia s Treat - A product review

britannia , britannia treat , britannia treat biscuits , treat cream biscuits
Britannia's Treat is one of the popular brands of Britannia's products. Treat is a flavoured cream variety and have orange , strawberry , pineapple , mango flavours etc . Kids really love this variety as it has jam filled at the centre of the biscuit . Here are some features
Name of the product --- Treat
Taste - Good with different flavours as mentioned above, sweetness on the higher side
Color - Light brown , baking good
Bite- hard bite
Packaging- Good with metalized wrapper , available in 42gms slugpack .
Ingredients-Wheat flour ,Sugar,Edible vegetable oil ,Invert syrup , Dextrose, Cereal products , Milk solid , Starch ,Fruit Products ,Raising agent ,Salt , Emulsifiers ,Gelling Agent ,Acidity regulator and stabilizer.Added flavours ( Butter , Vanilla and Mixed Fruit )
Calories-459kcal per 100gm servings
Price - Rs 5.00 for 42.0 gm s
Competitors --- Parle s Kreames , ITC Dream Cream, Priya Golds Kids Cream, Classic cream

Indian Biscuit Industry Review

India is the third largest biscuit manufacturing country after USA and CHINA .Estimated annual turnover of Indian biscuit industry is around INR 65.0 billion .Biscuit Industry in India is entering into competitive phase from period of two major players dominating the industry to number of player making mark on national scene and getting share of the market which is good for the industry.

Apart from Big 3( Britannia , Parle , ITC ) there are around 150 medium to small biscuit factory in India . These Industry are now facing problem from increase of raw material price. With Govt VAT upto 12.5% has added to their woes .
indian  biscuit  brands , indian biscuit industry , indian biscuit companies
Biscuit consumption per capita in India has grown to 2.1kg per capita in comparison to 10kg per capita consumption in USA ,UK and Europe . GCC has consumption upto 6 kg per capita .

According to IBMA, the biscuit industry in India witnessed annual growth as 15% in 2003-04, 14% in 2004-05 and 2005-06, 13% in 2006-07, 15% in 2007-08 and 17% in 2008-09. While the growth rate has been stagnating during last 4 years, it has picked up momentum during the 2007-08 and the first quarter of 2008-09 mainly on account of exemption from Central Excise Duty on biscuits with MRP up to INR 100 per kg, as per Union Budget for 2007-08.

The organized biscuit manufacturing industry‘s annual production were around 1.1 million tons in 2003-04, 1.25 million tons in 2004-05, 1.4 million tons in 2005-06, 1.6 million tons in 2006-07 and 1.7 tons in 2007-08.

Rural -Urban market penetration for biscuits has been 75%/85% for urban market and 55% /65% for rural market .

Branded /Organised to Unbranded/Un organised market share of biscuit has been 60% for Organised sector and 40% for Unorganised sector .

Biscuit consumption pattern in the country are Northern India 25%, Western India 23%, Southern India 24% and Eastern India 28%.

Export share is around 15% of total production .

Major types of biscuit popular in Indian market are Glucose , Marie , Cream, Crackers ,Digestive ,Cookies and Milk .

Major manufacturers are Britannia, Parle, ITC , Priyagold, Anmol, Sunfeast, Biskfarm, Dukes, Cremica, Priya, Veeramani, Bonn, Bhagwati, Raja, Champion, Sobisco, Madhabi, Nezone, Windsor, Cookieman, Ankit, Shangrila, Nalanda, Unibic , Cookie Man ,RajaBiscuit

Major  Multinationals  have  started  entering  into these lucrative market   major  names  are  Kraft , United Biscuits , Pepsi , Unibic , GSKB, Ceylon Biscuits  and  other new domestic  entrant  has been  Shakti  Bhog

Cold Storage Capacities Inadequate in India

In its recent report on food processing industry ASSOCHAM has highlighted Cold Storage chain s In capability to handle volumes from agri food chain . This has resulted in losses and makes India less competitive in World food processing industry. Facilities of Cold storage at export points are highly inadequate hence loosing out opportunities to export . Assocham has asked govt for more fiscal incentives towards upgrading food processing technology. It also recommends the government introduce fiscal and other incentives to encourage companies to invest in the latest food processing technology and to enchance Cold storage capacities .


Major Indian Sugar Mills and Refineries

Bakery Industry is one of the major consumer of sugar . Sugar constitutes almost 15 - 20 % of the product value . Bakery raw material procurement deptt has to source sugar from either mills directly or through agents , traders or dealers . Sourcing through Mills helps getting cheaper sugar and bakery manufacturers can avail cenvat( Modvat ) benefits on excise duty .

Here is list of major sugar mills in India
  • The Andhra Sugars Ltd
  • The Jeypore Sugar Co Ltd
  • K.C.P Sugar and Industries Corporation
  • Harinagar Sugar
  • Shree Kedut Sahakari Khand Ugyog
  • Shree Madhi Vibhag Khand Udyog
  • The Sarawasti Sugar Mills
  • Bajaj Hindustan Ltd
  • The Sambhaoli Sugar Mills Ltd
  • Triveni Engg & Industries Ltd
  • Balrampur Chini Mills Ltd
  • FMC Fortuna
  • The Dhampur Sugar Mills Ltd
  • Dwarikesh Sugar Industries Ltd
  • Gangeshwar Ltd
  • Mawana Sugar works
  • Shree Renuka Sugar
  • EID Parry

Why Palm oil is favorite shortening in bakery manufacturing

Palm oil has replaced all types of vegetable oils in bakery manufacturing . Palm oil is imported from countries like Malaysia , Indonesia or Philippines . Cost is the biggest factor as palm oil cost is cheaper than HVO ( Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil ) .Palm oil is also good for health as conc. of saturated fat is low in respect to others .
Palm oil is obtained from fleshy layer of palm fruit without solvents or chemical . By treatment with steam followed by pressing . The pressed oil is called crude palm oil . This palm oil is further refined using steam , vacuum and clay to remove color and odour .

Palm oil following charateristics makes it favorite shortening.

  • It has got natural anti oxidant s called tocotrienols which helps in protecting body against ill effects of oxidation.

  • It desnot have transfat ie zero trans fat . Its composed of palmilic acid and oleic acid .

  • Palm oil is naturally semi solid at room temperature ( melting point is 39 deg c ) which makes it an excellent shortening for food application . Palmilic acid imparts creamy texture to the shortening which is important for baked products.

  • Many combinations can be made out of fractions of palm oil . These fraction are obtained during the process of fractionation. Fractionation is a process to melt the palm oil and the cool it get crystal of fat along with the liquid , these crystal can then be blended to form different types of shortening .

  • Palm oil naturally resists oxidation and hence provide longer shelf life to the baked products . Shelf life and frying stability characteristics of palm oil are comparable to partially hydrogenated vegetable oil.

Both forms of palm oil RBD ( Refined , bleached and Deodorised )-Palmolein and RPKO ( Refined Palm kernel oil ) are used in baked goods

Gardenia -QAF brand - A Profile

Gardenia , Gardenia bread , gardenia in phillipens, gerdenia breads,qaf gardenia
Gardenia is one of the most popular bakery brands in Asean countries . Gardenia brand is owned by Singapore based QAF ltd . Established in 1950 by the name Ben and Company ltd and were in the business of food distributorship . In 1984 name changed to QAF ltd and is listed to Singapore bourse. QAF main businesses are Food Production , Milk and dairy production, Pork processing and distribution ,Logistics and warehousing , Food trading and distribution .There operations are in countries like Malaysia , Philippines , Australia ,Singapore and China .
Few major brands of QAF ltd are Gardenia , Bonjour , Cowhead , Farmland , High Country ,Haton , Family chef ,Opti Milk , Orchard Fresh , Nutrimax , Bakers Maison

We would focus only on its bakery business which is done under brand name Gardenia and Bonjour . Bakery products are packaged loaf bread, pastries and bakery products which are manufactured and distributed in countries like Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines and Australia. Its has been awarded Super brand status in Singapore , Malaysia and Philippines
Bakery products under Gardenia are sandwich breads, health breads, flavoured loaves, pandesal, buns and snack cakes

HQ - 150 South Bridge Road,No 09-04 Fook Hai Building,Singapore, 058727
Singapore,Phone: 65 6538 2866,Fax: 65 6538 6866

Sales Turn over( 2008) -USD 582.0 Mn
Chairman- Mr Didi Dawis
Group MD -Mr Tan Kong King

Horizontal flow wrap ( HFW ) packing machine - Basics

hfw , hfw machine , packing machine , horizontal  flow wrap  packing machine
Horizontal flow wrap packing machine are most popular packing machine in bakery Industry . It is used in packing of biscuits , cookies , cakes , breads etc .

Popularity of these Horizontal flow wrap packing machine are for the following reason

  • It can handle wide varieties of Dimensions from big packets to small

  • Excellent ratio of cost per pack

  • It offers hermetic packages even at high speed s

  • Speed could be as high as 1000packets per minutes

  • HFW Packing machine doesn't require much of the space

  • HFW are relatively simple machines as compare to the other machine s

  • Various combination are available like tray flow wrap .

Horizontal Flow wrap Packing machine s Important parts

  • Cross pushers

  • Infeed Lugs and chain

  • Forming box

  • Sealing Rollers

  • Upper and Lower Jaws

  • Heater ( Cylindrical and round )

  • Cutter or Knife and anvil

  • Lateral chain and lateral lugs

Accessories attached to this packing machine are Print mark scanner or Photocell and Printer machine .Now days all HFW machines are driven by servomotor through PLC . Multi line Packing machines are available for higher speed packing .

Change over of these machines takes from 30 min - 1hrs as per the product .

Biscuit consumption in UAE - some facts

Biscuit ,Cookies and wafer consumption in UAE is around 6kg/per person and its contributes to 20% of total volume of biscuits sale in GCC . Major Brands of biscuit are Oreo , Mcvities , Tim Tam , Ulker , Americana ,Tiffany , Nabil , Britannia , Parle ,Bisca ,Nutro etc .


Bakery manufacturers -Arnotts biscuits Ltd - Profile

Arnotts , Arnotts biscuit , Arnotts brand of biscuit
Arnott s biscuits are among one of the top biscuit , cookies manufacturers of the world .Arnotts are most popular brand of cookies and biscuit in Australia .Established in year 1865 at Hunter Street, Newcastle, north of Sydney, New South Wales. Arnotts has become synonym of Australian best food companies .Its products are sold in more than 40 countries including Japan , China , USA , UK , New Zealand . Employs around 6500 employee in Australia and employs several thousand people across the Asia Pacific region, in countries such as New Zealand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Japan. Its owned by Campbell Soup Company of USA .
Popular products of Arnotts brand are cookies , biscuits and crackers in snacks category
Popular brands from Arnotts
in chocolate variety - Tim Tam ,Mint Slice ,Royals , Monte , Wagon Wheels
Sweet biscuits -Monte carlo , Kingston,Farmbake , Premier,Tiny Teddy , Snack Right , Venetian,Yo-Yo
Savoury varriety- Shapes , Vita -weat , Salada , Jatz

Sales turnover- USD 1,152,867,000/-

President Arnott s Asia Pacific - Mark Alexander

HQ -Arnott's Biscuits Limited,Arnott's Biscuits Limited ,24 George StreetNORTH STRATHFIELD, NSW2137 AUSTRALIA website :

Various Packing formats for biscuit packaging

biscuit packaging , biscuit packs , biscuit pack design , types of biscuit packaging
Biscuit manufacturers have many formats to pack biscuit for the consumer . Biscuit packs are launched into market taking into the view various factor like pack for which group , family view , promotion or festivals,on the move pack s etc

Following are few popular packing formats for biscuit s

  • Jumbo Pack or Family packs-As the name suggest these packs have more grammage eg more than 250 gms to 850 gms. Best suited for house wife who prefers to buy in bulk

  • Tikki or mini pack-These are reverse of Family pack . It consists of 3-4 biscuit in a pack .These have been popular with retailers as they can pass on this with other items in lieu of change

  • Slug or single pack -Normal pack and popular with 100 gms and 150 gm s of biscuit for a single day stock for an individual.popular with School or College going kids .

  • Assorted pack-These mostly offered during festival or with some sales promotion it consists of different varieties biscuit in one pack from a single manufacturer.

  • Multipack-Many packs in large pack similar to Family pack

  • Display box pack-Biscuits are arranged in open box and the over wrapped were packs are visible to consumers

  • Shrink pack -Biscuit packs are placed in normal box and then over wrapped for extra protection

  • Vertical pouch packs -Its a New trend among the biscuit manufacturers as this ideas has been taken from snacks and is used by group of people going for long travel , picnics , outings etc

  • Pile pack-Generally biscuits are packed as pile pack where the biscuits are flat and face towards the base of the packets

  • On the edge pack-Biscuits are packed on the edge ie biscuits are vertical to the base of pack

  • Multi layer pack-Two or three layers of biscuit in same pack generally found in cream biscuits

  • Tray pack-Biscuit are placed in trays and then packed with wrappers .

Biscuit packing materials

biscuit packing material , biscuit packaing , packaging material , bakery packaging
Biscuit packing involves various different packing material .Packaging main objective s are to give product a longer shelf life , mechanical cushion against damage , labelling as per food laws , nutritional and calories , allergen notification , advertisement and promotion .

Packing material are checked for GSM ( grams per sq mtr) , thickness ( micron) and bursting strength apart from physical features like printing , symbols , labels etc .

Following features are required for biscuit packing material

  • Water vapour permeability

  • Oxygen permeability

  • Aroma impermeability of product

  • Resistance to seepage of fat and oil

  • Protection towards uv lights

  • Heat sealability

  • Printablity

  • Mechanical cushion against shock and vibrations

  • Labels for consumer information

  • Convenient opening options like tear tape , incision cuts etc

Materials for biscuit packing are

  • BOPP Film ( Bi axial oriented polypropylene )
    Bopp monofilm
    Bopp clear film and Bopp printed
    Bopp combination like Bopp pearlised or BOPP/PER
    Bopp metallized or BOPP/MET

  • LDPE preformed pouches

  • Polypropylene preformed pouches

  • LDPE Laminates for pillow packs

  • Metallized Polyester for pillow pack

  • Thermoformed Pvc Trays

  • Thermoformed polysterene

  • CBBS

  • Tins

  • Stickers

  • Tear Tapes

  • Display boxes

  • Plain Boxes

  • Shrink wrap Film

  • Over wrap Film

  • Poly bags
    Wrappers or laminates have to be stored in dry and cool place as high temperatures and humidity can damage the wrapper. Major problems due to humidity and temperatures are curling and cracking .

Wait and watch policy on price increase - Biscuit manufacturers

Biscuit manufacturers of India have adopted a wait and watch policy on spiraling prices of major ingredients like sugar , milk , edible oil etc . Things have been aggravated by poor monsoon this year where majority of states are facing drought like situation . All this has prompted biscuit manufacturers for adopting cost reduction strategies avoiding the last resort of price increase of the product . All of them were of the view to reduce grammage of biscuit then to increase the price .
This has been the strategy for most of the biscuit manufacturer for recent months hence giving less and charging same price from the consumer .


Wooden Pallets Vs Plastic Pallets

wooden pallets vs plastic pallets, plastic pallets , pallets,wooden pallets
Wooden pallets are being gradually replaced by plastic pallets at most of the bakeries . These pallets are used to stack sugar , wheat flour , ammonia , skimmed milk powders and other raw materials bags . These pallets are also used to palletize finished products carton boxes . These pallets are then lifted by either forklifts or mechanical hand pallets trucks for movement . These pallets are cleaned regularly for hygienic conditions .Could be of various design and must match material handling equipment fork dimensions .

Both Plastic and Wooden pallets have advantages as well as disadvantages .

Wooden Pallets are being phased out as because plastic pallets are more durable , can be cleaned are more hygienic .Wooden Pallets have more chances to be prone to insects infestation and can add on to foreign body complaints in products.

Plastic pallets also have serrations which are breeding ground for insects .Plastic pallets have dangerous chemical coating to make it fire proof ,this chemical can easily get into product.


Major Metal detector manufacturers for bakeries

metal  detector , metal detection , metal check , metal
Metal Detectors are most critical equipment of all food safety equipment in bakeries as well as any other food industry . These are ccps for most of bakeries for HACCP . All food safety standards has SOP s for metal detector . Basic function of metal detector is to detect metal and other foreign particles in finished as well as wet product like dough . Its rejects the contaminated material through automated rejection systems or stops the production line .

Various brands of metal detector are found in bakeries .Few popular metal detector manufacturers are mentioned below

  • Locks Inspection systems Inc - Metal check , Met Series
  • Mettler Taledo - Safeline
  • Heat & Control Inc - Ishida , FastBack
  • Eriez -Ez tec
  • Advance Detection sytem - Proscan
  • Anritsu Industrial solution USA Inc - KD series
  • Fortress Technology Inc - Vector , Contact
  • Loma Inspection systems -Loma
  • S+S Inspection Inc - Genius
  • Thermo Scientific process equipment division - Goring Kerr , Thermo electron,Ramsey
  • Gorring Ker  Metal Detectors

    In India
    Technofour metal detectors are the most used metal detectors in bakery plants .

Kraft Inc sets an example by reducing water consumption in plants by 21%

Food factories consume huge amount of water in their manufacturing process , cleaning and utilities . Kraft Inc world second largest food producing company has achieved reduction in its water consumption by 21% ( nearly 12 billion litres )in three years , a feat worth emulating . Kraft Inc has made this possible with objective driven projects on water conservation . Major plants are Kraft Australia , Bahrain ,Germany and USA .
These has been possible with following steps
  • Recycling and reuse of waste water from effluent treatment plants
  • Change in Cleaning and washing methods
  • Repair and maintenance of leaky pipelines
  • Installation of low water consuming fittments .

Even supplying treated water to road construction companies for their road compaction and dust suppression work.

Great Job ! water is fast becoming scarce we expect all companies to intiate water conservation project and save water.

Sustainable Packaging Coalition ( SPC ) - A step in green packaging

Food Packaging including bakery product packaging contribute significantly towards plastic packaging waste . Plastic Packaging are big environment hazard.Public opinion and government pressure has resulted that companies have started looking for Eco friendly packaging solution .

Few companies have joined hands and formed a Sustainable Packaging coalition . As per them
"The Sustainable Packaging Coalition envisions a world where all packaging is sourced responsibly, designed to be effective and safe throughout its life cycle, meet market criteria for performance and cost, is made entirely using renewable energy and, once used, is recycled efficiently to provide a valuable resource for subsequent generations. In summary: a true cradle-to-cradle system for all packaging,”

It would ensure that what ever packaging material would be accepted it would be Eco friendly as well would be economically viable for business.

Some of the major food companies who have joined SPC are
Kellogg s
Coca -Cola
Sara Lee


Type of flour used in Bakeries

Bakeries procure different types of flour from millers for their different products , These flours can be categorised on the basis of nature , process and by gluten . Flour is obtained by grinding grain, most commonly of wheat but also from rye, buckwheat, barley, potato, corn etc.
The wheat kernel 'consists of three parts: bran covering the germ , kernel and endosperm.
During milling, the three parts are separated and recombined accordingly to achieve different types of flour.

Following are different type of flours
  • All Purpose flour
  • White wheat flour
  • Whole wheat flour
  • Bleached flour
  • Unbleached flour
  • Hard Flour or Strong Flour
  • Soft Flour or Weak Flour
  • Cake Flour .

Flour type depends upon the geography ,weather and gluten content

Important Flour Characteristics used in bakery industry

Food technologist or any baker needs to know the flour characteristics for selection of flour for the products . These characteristics can be supplied by the vendors or can be checked in house in laboratory with help of different equipments like extensograph or alveograph.

Here are some important characteristics of flour used in bakeries
  • Gluten ( P/L ratio)

Higher P/L values indicate flours that are more difficult to work and that result in a bread less developed with a compact crumb. Lower P/L values indicate flours that will be weak, too extensible, and difficult to work because they are often sticky. The bread which results will be flattened because the dough has not succeeded in holding back the developing gases.

  • Falling number

It shows the activity of alpha - amylase enzyme .Higher number shows low activity ie less break down of starch and lower number shows high activity ie more break down of starch.

  • Moisture percentage

Amount of water content in flour .

  • Ash content

Ash content refers to the mineral content of a flour, and is determined by burning a given quantity of flour under prescribed conditions and measuring the residue. The mineral content varies and depends on many factors, such as the variety of wheat, the terrain, the fertilization, and the climate. The greater portion of minerals found in a kernel of wheat is contained in the germ, and husk, or bran, and the least amount in the endosperm. As a consequence, if a flour contains a greater number of bran particles, it has a more elevated ash content. The determination of the ash content serves to estimate the degree of the endosperm separation from the bran during milling

  • Water absorption power ( W.A.P)

Every flour has certain water absorption power so as to make good dough .Generally 60% of flour quantity amounts to the quantity of water

  • Adsorption in flour .

Major sugar producing countries of world

Sugar what we use in bakery is produced from sugar cane and most of the countries producing sugar are in southern hemisphere of the globe countries like Brazil, India ,China , Australia and Thailand are major producers of sugar
World major sugar producing countries are following
  • Brazil ( almost 20 % of world sugar production )
  • European Union
  • India
  • China
  • US
  • Mexico
  • South Africa
  • Australia
  • Thailand
  • Russia

World Major sugar exporting countries

  • Brazil ( almost 39% of exported sugar of the world)
  • European Union
  • Australia
  • Thailand
  • South Africa
  • Guatemala
  • India

Countries like Brazil , Mexico , Australia and India are major consumer of sugar .Bakery Companies have to track the sugar prices which are in turn affected by events and development in these exporting , producing and importing countries

California Pizza Kitchen (CPK ) selects franchise partner to enter Indian market

California Pizza Kitchen Inc .has entered into franchisee agreement for opening up CPK outlets in different metros of India in coming year with Daud Arabian Trading and JSM Corporation Pvt Ltd .


Food Cutting with Ultra sonic waves - A press release

Herrmann Ultrasonics, Inc.1261 Hardt Circle, Bartlett IL 60103
Chris Van De Walker, Marketing
Tel.: 630-626-1642
Tel. (630) 626-1626
Fax (630) 626-1627

Food Cutting with Ultrasonics

The cutting of food products is a requirement throughout a wide variety of food related markets. The use of ultrasonics for the cutting of these products has shown to reduce product waste and increase throughput while providing first grade cuts.

Herrmann Ultrasonics offers ultrasonic food cutting systems that utilize a vibrating blade of varying sizes and configurations to cut a wide variety of food products. These ultrasonic systems can be configured in almost any type of array, whether the requirements are longitudinal cuts, cross cuts, slicing or any combination of the above.

Ultrasonics are currently being used in the confectionary, bakery and candy industries because of the clear advantages that ultrasonics offers compared to traditional mechanical systems. Ultrasonics can be used to cut through products that are soft, sticky, hard or fragile. First grade cuts can be the standard for each these products without the need for regular blade replacements and cleaning. The use of ultrasonics offers a solution that can cut through hard products such as nuts along with soft products such as fruits and chocolates with the same system. Another clear benefit of Herrrmann Ultrasonics cutting systems are that these products can be cut regardless if they are warm from baking or cold from refrigeration without product sticking to the blade while having the ability to make very thin cuts of the same high quality.

Other industries that are realizing the benefits of ultrasonics are cheese and meat products. Cheese products that are high or low moisture regardless of temperature can benefit from ultrasonics by providing clean and smooth cuts while reducing waste. The vibrating energy of the ultrasonic blade allows for the precise cutting of soft or hard products, especially in thin slices. This allows for less waste at the perimeter of the product. Meat and sausage products can be cut, sliced and prepared regardless of temperature or density. Ultrasonics provides high quality cuts with less waste and less maintenance. Ultrasonic cutting blades do not have the wear and replacement issues common with traditional mechanical systems, resulting in higher throughput with less down time.

The consumer expectations of food products are becoming more and more stringent. Customers expect a high quality product that is also visually pleasing. Herrmann Ultrasonics food cutting systems provide a versatile and flexible method of food cutting that provides for smooth first grade cuts of a wide variety of products that are visually superior to traditional mechanical systems. This can be achieved in manufacturing while reducing waste, improving throughout and reducing energy consumption.

SQF - Safety Quality Food programs for bakeries

Bakeries manufacturers or facility owners and Other related food factories are implementing Safety quality Program certification in their production units . The Program was launched in 1994 in Australia and since 2004 has been administered by the SQF Institute (SQFI), a division of the Food Marketing Institute (FMI). SQF certifications have been issued to thousands of companies operating in Asia-Pacific, Europe, Middle East and North and South America.The SQF Institute was established by FMI in 2004 to administer the SQF Program and is located in Arlington, Virginia.It has 1500 member companies .

What is SQF ? Benefits
The SQF (Safe Quality Food) Program is a leading, global food safety and quality certification program and management system, designed to meet the needs of buyers and suppliers worldwide. The Program provides independent certification that a supplier's food safety and quality management system complies with international and domestic food safety regulations. This enables suppliers to assure their customers that food has been produced, processed, prepared and handled according to the highest possible standards, at all levels of the supply chain. The SQF Program is the onlyGlobal Food Safety Initiative ( GFSI )recognized standard that can offer a seamless farm to fork food safety and quality certification solution by providing supply chain management for both primary production (SQF 1000) and food manufacturing and distribution (SQF 2000).

How SQF is unique from other Food safety programs

  • Limited Certification and Accrediting bodies which are trained and supervised directly by SQFI ,hence better results and control. Currently on 13 licenses has been issued world wide .

  • SQF auitors goes through a complete training under SQFI hence maintaining audit consistency .

Cinnabon a Major Bakery brand to be launched in India

Cinnabon a Major bakery brand in world would be launched soon in India through a franchise route .Wadhawan Hospitality group would launch this brand in India with initial investment of Rs 150 crores .Wadhawan Hospitality groups have their own food retail chain such as Spinach , Smart and Sabka Bazar . Cinnabon is owned by Focus Brands of USA . Initial plan is to set up 150 Cinnabon India Bakeries pan India .


Britannia s Marie Gold - Product review

Marie Gold , britannia marie Gold , marie gold from britannia
Britannia's Marie gold is one of the power brands of Britannia's products. Marie gold has low sugar content hence popular with elderly people . Marie gold is also favorite tea time biscuit ,Its now available in Zero trans fat category .
Here some features
Name of the product --- Marie Gold
Taste - Good with some flavour of milk
Color - yellowish brown
Bite- hard bite
Packaging- Good , available in 337gms family pack , 171gms slug pack
Ingredients-Wheat flour ,Sugar,Edible vegetable oil ,Invert syrup , Milk solid , Salt , Emulsifiers and dough conditioners.Added flavours ( Butter , Vanilla ,milk)
Calories-434 kcal per 100gm servings
Price - Rs 25.00 for 337 gm s
Competitors --- Parle s Marie , ITC Marie , Priya Golds Marie lite

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Pest Control for bakery Industry

pest control in bakery , pest control

As bakery industry is moving towards food safety standards and regulations with tools like HACCP ,GMP , ISO22000,BRC,SQF etc ,pest control becomes important in the view of sanitation and hygiene.
Food items at place of storage , process and dispatch attracts pest which are nuisance as well problem towards hygienic conditions in a bakery . Various types of pest could be seen in a bakery where no pest management is in place eg insects , beevels , rodents , flies , birds , microbes etc .Pest control itself is a specialized field where one has to contact professional pest control contractors or else ask some consultant to do a Pest audits in the plant and to do follow up action on his recommendation .
Workers & Factory Personnel's have to be trained in hygiene and pest control tools and methods .
Pest control management includes following
  • Waste management in place and working .Ensure that wastes , spillages ,floor sweepings are lifted in regular intervals through out the day .
  • Building repair and maintenance are done regularly where building cracks and grooves are filled in and repaired so that insects or rodent do not grow in these cracks .
  • Insecticutors are in place and source of flies are identified and corrective action taken .
  • Drainage system is designed properly and is working .
  • To remove moisture and humidity from production areas .
  • Storage areas to be provided with at least 20-20" space or gap all around so as to allow personnel to clean the storage area.
  • Tanks and silos to be cleaned regularly after fumigation on regular intervals.
  • Install  CIP  where ever  possible  inside production  area 
  • Dry sludge for ETPs to be lifted regularly .
  • Protective clothing to be provided to visitors .
  • Air conditioning and refrigeration units to checked for condensation and leaky pipelines can be source of pests.
  • Floors  are  washed and cleaned in regular intervals  with  floor washers 
  • Frequency to be increased during  monsoon season.
  • Implement good management system like HACCP , FSMS 22000 , ISO-22000,BRC,HALAL, GMP,GHP,SQF etc.
Following chemicals and items can help in pest control
Commercial Hcl , Dettol,Bleaching Powder,Detergent Powder,Soap Solutions,Napthelene toilet balls,toilet bowl cleaner,Potassium Permagnate,Pynolic Evans,Snip Fly bait,Quick Bait,PVC strips on doors, ,Fly  attractant,Fly terminators,Glue Sticks., Air Curtains , Good house keeping with proper  sanitations.  

Pest Bird Control Methods

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Contact  for  private  label  and  contract  manufacturing - Biscuit

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Mobile Number : 09035804172

Major Palm Oil producing Countries

Major Bakery companies have to source their requirement of palm oil form different countries keeping in the view the cost element that includes the basic cost plus the freight cost .

Following are the Major Palm oil producing country
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Philippines
  • Columbia
  • Nigeria

Major Importers of palm oil are China , India and the European Union countries.

Top Palm oil companies of the world

Palm has gained popularity among bakery manufacturers as cheap alternative with better healthy features in palm oil . Major palm oil producing countries are Indonesia , Malaysia, colombia . Bakery manufacturers are now sourcing their palm oil requirement from Asean Countries.
The top companies involved in trading , processing and selling pal oil across the globe are

PT Astra Agro lestari - Indonesia
IOI Corporation - Malaysia
Wilmar International - Malaysia

Worlds Major PU conveyor belt manufacturers

Pu conveyors have wide application in bakery industry . Conveyors in forming , packing , metal detection process have PU webs . Bakery owners have to keep these belts in spare as a critical stock . Any failure of belt can results in major break down . Good quality of Pu belts has to be procured from reputed manufacturers

List of world major PU belt manufacturers .

  • Habasit
  • Siegling
  • Ammeraal Beltech
  • Belt Corporation of America
  • Cambridge International inc
  • Saint Gobain
  • Sampla
  • Dorner Manufacturing Corporation
  • Nerak Systems

Pu conveyors Vs Cotton conveyors for bakery plants

Bakery factories or plants have numerous conveyors in their process and webs are made up of either Pu , PVC or cotton conveyors . All these materials have their advantage s as well as disadvantages . Pu material are costly but hygienic where as cotton canvases are cheap and some what unhygienic .

Advantages of PU ( Poly urethane ) conveyors .
  • Hygienic easy to clean or wash
  • Easy to replace
  • Can be manufactured in any colours .Helps in process
  • Joints are easily done in house
  • Better for metal detection
  • No major expansion or shrinkage's

Disadvantages of PU belts

  • Costly
  • Fails at times to carry products ( less friction )
  • Problem on Oily substance
  • Surface Cracking common .Entire belt has to be changed
  • FDA approved belt are not readily available

Advantage Cotton belts

  • Easy availability .
  • Can be procured in bulk
  • Cheaper alternative to PU
  • Repairs can be done easily
  • Provides impressions on products
  • Carry all kind s of products due to its rough surface
  • Few operations cotton webs are irreplaceable

Disadvantages of Cotton Belts

To be replaced in short period as it becomes unhygienic easily

  • Joints and sides are to be stitched regularly. Repairs are common
  • Could not be washed or cleaned . it has to be replaced after certain period
  • Expansion and shrinkage's are erratic some times
  • Web tracking is very common due to elongation and contraction
  • metal detection is less on cotton belt surface

A bakery manager has to select the best option keeping in the view the cost , the products senstivity and quality .

Bread spreads for your sandwiches

There are several bread spreads which we use regularly for our sandwiches . Home made spreads and fillings are also popular and is upto individuals taste .

Following are some common spreads

  • Jams

  • Jelly

  • Cheese
  • Butter

  • Honey

  • Marmalade

  • Mayonesse

  • Non veg spreads

  • Preserve

  • Conserve

You can have wide range of combinations of flavours for all above mentioned spreads as per your taste . Add your favorites

Major Bread Manufacturers of South Africa

In South africa too bread has become the major staple food . Population is shifting its eating habit from maize based food to wheat breads . Few bread companies in south africa have national foot prints  and  have major share in bread sales.

Folllowing are the major bread manufacturer of breads in south africa

Pioneer Foods and Sasko- Blue Bird, Uncle Salie and Natural Harvest;
Tiger Brands -Albany
Premier Foods and Genfoods - Blue Ribbon and BB
Foodcorp- Sunbake
Above  are  some  popular south african bread brands which  could be seen in all upmarket and  stores .


What are major Bakery Ingredients

Major Ingredients for bakery are depends upon the nature of bakery products such as whether you want to produce breads , biscuit s , cakes or wafers plus what flavour you want and what color you want in the products .

Basic Categories with Bakery Ingredients are

Basic raw material :
Flour , Fat , Sugar , Salt which are common to all bakery products .There could be little variation in type of flour , type of fat or type of sugar we use for different bakery product that we would discuss in my coming blog posts

Emulsifiers( denoted by E numbers ):
GMS , poly sorbate , lecithin , CSL , SSL

Dough Conditioners
Calcium stearoyl lactylate , Sodium stearoyl lactylate , Sodium stearoyl fumarate ,Potassium bromate , Carrageenan , Tetrasodium pyrophosphate , Fumaric acid

Leavening Agents
Sodium bicarbonate , Ammonium bicarbonate , Yeast , eggs , Gyceroyl monostrate

Tocopherols (Vitamin E) ,Ascorbic acid and sodium ascorbate (Vitamin C) ,Erythorbic acid (like vitamin C, but not a vitamin) ,BHA (Butylated Hydroxyanisole) ,BHT (Butylated ydroxytoluene) Sodium citrate ,Lecithin ,Propyl gallate
Sodium benzoate ,Benzoic acid ,Potassium sorbate ,Sorbic acid ,Natamycin ,Triclosan ,Triclocarban ,Hexachlorophene ,Acetic acid (vinegar) ,Salt ,Sugar ,Calcium propionate ,Sodium propionate ,Lactic acid ,Sodium nitrite ,Sodium nitrate ,Propylene glycol ,Butylene glycol ,Honey

Sucrose ,Invert Sugar ,Fructose,High Fructose Corn Syrup ,Neotame ,Acesulfame-K ,Aspartame Sucralose ,Saccharin ,Lactose

Annatto ,Beta carotene ,Carmine ,Saffron ,Turmeric ,,llura Red ,Tartrazine ,Indigo ,Sodium caseinate ,Calcium caseinate ,Ferrous Gluconate

Acetic acid (vinegar) ,Citric acid ,Lactic acid ,Stearic acid ,Phosphoric acid ,Fumaric acid
Tartaric acid
Methyl Vanillin ,Ethyl Vanillin ,Denatonium benzoate
Vanilla ,Monosodium glutamate (MSG) ,Hydrolyzed vegetable protein

Ethanol ,SD alcohol ,Stearyl alcohol ,Cetyl alcohol ,Glycerine (glycerol) ,Menthol

Figs, Dates,Prunes , Cherries , Nuts , Coconuts , PeaNuts

Moisture Controller
Glycerine (glycerol) ,Sorbitol ,Sodium PCA ,Propylene glycol ,Butylene glycol ,Panthenol

Corn syrup (mostly glucose) ,Sodium caseinate ,Calcium caseinate ,Polyethylene glycol (PEG)
Polypropylene glycol (PPG) ,Lecithin ,Hydroxymethylcellulose ,Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose
Xylenesulfonates ,Agar ,Gelatin ,Pectin ,Alginate & proplylene glycol alginate,
Starch ,Modified Starch ,Carrageenan ,uar bean gum ,locust bean gum ,Gum Acacia ,Gum Arabic ,Brominated vegetable oil ,Xanthan Gum ,Gum Tragacanth ,Ghatti ,Karaya ,Furcelleran

Bakery manufacturer - Sara Lee Corporation - Company profile

Sara lee Corporation is among one of the largest manufacturer of bakery products and have sales across the globe . Sara lee got its name from the entrepreneur Charlie Lubins Daughter s name who started a cheese cake line of bakery which was then bought out by Consolidated Foods in 1956. Sara lee corporation has around 44 000 employees around the world with manufacturing units locations in various countries of Americas , Europe , Africa , Asia , Australia/New Zealand .

Main Products :Meat,Bakery,Frozen,Beverages,Household Care,Body Care

Major Brands :Ambi Pur, Ball Park, Douwe Egberts, Hillshire Farm, Jimmy Dean, Kiwi, Sanex, Senseo and Sara Lee.

Head Quarters :3500 Lacey Road, , Downers Grove, IL, 60515, United States Fax: 1-630-5988482

Turnover:13.21 Million USD

CEO:Brenda C Barnes

Britannia celebrates Raksha Bandhan with launch of Shubh Kaamnayein

Britannia s India major bakery manufacturer has launched ''Shubh Kaamnayein " range of gift pack for Raksha Bandhan festival . Already Cadburys had "" Celebration"" range of gift packs for chocolates on this occasion . Promoting biscuits for festivals has been a new concepts for Indian masses as we all used to have sweets . But with assorted packs which consists of Jim Jam ,Bourbon , fruit cakes and other delicacies people would prefer biscuits instead of sweets . Britannia already had "'Greetings " range of gift pack for Diwali last year.

""Shubh Kaamnayien "" is priced Rs 50 and Rs 100

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