Here are few major bakery ingredient and their role
Primary role of sugar in bread and biscuit is provide sweetness( taste) to the product .Color to the product due to carmalisation .Color of the crust in bread loaves is due to the sugar .Basic role of sugar is to activate the yeast to produce carbon dioxide and alochol during bread manufacturing .Note: When preparing for mixing yeast is separately being put into ammonium chloride and sugar solution .
Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil -( HVO )Main function of HVO is to retain the moisture inside the dough.Give smoothness to the bite .
It provides taste to the product .
Salt act as controlling agent against wild yeast activity .Thus controlled yeast activity can provide better texture or network .
GMS ( Glycerol Mono stearate)-Its act as emulsifier which binds together the oil and water molecules and it helps bread to hold moisture .
SSL ( Sodium Stearoyl lactilate)-It is also known as Smoother .It is a compound which retains softness in bread and delays staling of bread .
SMP ( Skimmed Milk Powder) Solution-Main function of Skimmed milk powder is to give flavour to the product and sweetens the product.
Ammonium Chloride-Ammonium chloride provides Nitrogen which used to activate yeast in presence of water and sugar.
Bread Improver-These are used for improving texture of bread and add to the flavour.
Dough Conditioner-These are used to strengthen weak flour and generally enzymes alpha - amylase .Its added to break down the starch into sugar and alcohol. These are prepared from fungal sources .
L - cysteine-L -cysteine acts on sulphide groups and proteins and acts as reducing agent . It mellows the dough .
Ascorbic Acid-Ascorbic acid acts as oxidising agent which acts upon the sulphide bonds of amino acid ( gluten) which results in stronger bonds which increases resistance and reduces extensibility of dough.Ascorbic acid reacts slowly and for longer time and is active even at the baking stage .
Potassium Bromate-Potassium bromate too acts as oxidising agent the difference between ascorbic acid and potassium bromate is that its a strong reagent its activity time is short and reaction is strong.It also helps in increasing resistance of dough and reducing extensibility.Note : It is interesting to know that both oxidising and reducing agents are used in bread. The reason to use both are that we need to get balanced property of dough. We can make bread without L- cysteine or Ascorbic acid
Calcium propianate-Calcium propianate acts as preservative. Its main function is to protect product from any fungal infection .Hence increases shelf life of the product. The quantity of Calcium propianate varies with season.In rainy season quantities are increased.
Acetic Acid-Acetic acid is also used as preservative .It protects products from bacterial infection . As it reduces the pH of the dough and turns the dough towards acidic side .Its quantity also varies as per the season.Yeast - Previous post on Role and type of yeast